NATS Logo by Example

Push Consumers in JetStream

A push consumer provides alternate control to a pull consumer. Rather than fetching messages in controlled (and appropriately sized) batches to be processed, with a push consumer, the server will proactively push as many messages to the active subscription up to the consumer’s max ack pending limit.

In the happy path, the subscription receiving these messages can keep up and acknowledge the message prior to the ack wait time has elapsed.

Where push consumers can get unwieldy and confusing is when the subscriber cannot keep up, message processing errors start occurring, or the active subscription gets interrupted. Messages start getting redelivered and being interleaving with new messages pushed from the stream.

In practice, ephemeral push consumers can be a lightweight and useful way to do one-off consumption of a subset of messages in a stream. However, if you have a durable use case, it is recommended to access pull consumers first which provides more control and implicit support for scaling out consumption.

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$ nbe run jetstream/push-consumer/go
View the source code or learn how to run this example yourself


package main

import (


func main() {

Use the env variable if running in the container, otherwise use the default.

	url := os.Getenv("NATS_URL")
	if url == "" {
		url = nats.DefaultURL

Create an unauthenticated connection to NATS.

	nc, _ := nats.Connect(url)
	defer nc.Drain()

Access the JetStreamContext for managing streams and consumers as well as for publishing and subscription convenience methods.

	js, _ := nc.JetStream()

Declare a simple limits-based stream and populate the stream with a few messages.

	streamName := "EVENTS"

		Name:     streamName,
		Subjects: []string{"events.>"},

	js.Publish("events.1", nil)
	js.Publish("events.2", nil)
	js.Publish("events.3", nil)


The JetStreamContext provides a simple way to create an ephemeral push consumer, simply provide a subject that overlaps with the bound subjects on the stream and this helper method will do the stream look-up automatically and create the consumer. We will also make ack-ing explicit rather than relying on the default implicit ack on receive.

	fmt.Println("# Ephemeral")
	sub, _ := js.SubscribeSync("events.>", nats.AckExplicit())

An ephemeral consumer has a name generated on the server-side. Since there is only one consumer so far, let’s just get the first one.

	ephemeralName := <-js.ConsumerNames(streamName)
	fmt.Printf("ephemeral name is %q\n", ephemeralName)

Since this is a push consumer, messages will be sent by the server and pre-buffered by this subscription. We can observe this by using the Pending() method. Messages are buffered asynchronously, so this pending count may or may not be three.

	queuedMsgs, _, _ := sub.Pending()
	fmt.Printf("%d messages queued\n", queuedMsgs)

The maxinum number of messages that will be queued is defined by the MaxAckPending option set on a consumer. The default is 65,536. Let’s observe this by publishing a few more events and then check the pending status again.

	js.Publish("events.4", nil)
	js.Publish("events.5", nil)
	js.Publish("events.6", nil)

Let’s check if we buffered some more.

	queuedMsgs, _, _ = sub.Pending()
	fmt.Printf("%d messages queued\n", queuedMsgs)

To receive a message, call NextMsg with a timeout. The timeout applies when pending count is zero and the consumer has fully caught up to the available messages in the stream. If no messages become available, this call will only block until the timeout.

	msg, _ := sub.NextMsg(time.Second)
	fmt.Printf("received %q\n", msg.Subject)

By default, the underlying consumer requires explicit acknowlegements, otherwise messges will get redelivered.


Let’s receive and ack another.

	msg, _ = sub.NextMsg(time.Second)
	fmt.Printf("received %q\n", msg.Subject)

Checking out our pending information, we see there are no more than four remaining.

	queuedMsgs, _, _ = sub.Pending()
	fmt.Printf("%d messages queued\n", queuedMsgs)

Unsubscribing this subscription will result in the ephemeral consumer being deleted. Note, even if this is omitted and the process ends or is interrupted, the server will eventually clean-up the ephemeral when it determines the subscription is no longer active.


Durable (Helper)

We can use the same SubscribeSync method to create a durable consumer as well by passing nats.Durable(). This will implicitly create the durable if it does not exist, otherwise it will bind to an existing one if it exist.

	fmt.Println("\n# Durable (Helper)")

	sub, _ = js.SubscribeSync("events.>", nats.Durable("handler-1"), nats.AckExplicit())

Let’s check out pending messages again. We should have some queued up already.

	queuedMsgs, _, _ = sub.Pending()
	fmt.Printf("%d messages queued\n", queuedMsgs)

Let’s receive one and ack it.

	msg, _ = sub.NextMsg(time.Second)

One nuance of implicitly creating a durable using this helper method is that if Unsubscribe or Drain is called, the consumer will actually be deleted. So these helpers should only be used if neither of those methods are called.


If we try to get the consumer info, we will see it no longer exists.

	_, err := js.ConsumerInfo("EVENTS", "handler-1")

Durable (AddConsumer)

A more explicit and safer way to create durables is using js.AddConsumer. For push consumers, we must provide a DeliverSubject which is the subject messages will be published to (pushed) for a subscription to receive them.

	fmt.Println("\n# Durable (AddConsumer)")

	consumerName := "handler-2"
	js.AddConsumer(streamName, &nats.ConsumerConfig{
		Durable:        consumerName,
		DeliverSubject: "handler-2",
		AckPolicy:      nats.AckExplicitPolicy,
		AckWait:        time.Second,

Now that the consumer is created, we need to bind a client subscription to it which will receive and process the messages. This can be done using the nats.Bind subscription option which requires the consumer to have been pre-created. The subject can be omitted since that was already defined on the consumer. Subscriptions to consumers cannot independently define their own subject to filter on.

	sub, _ = js.SubscribeSync("", nats.Bind(streamName, consumerName))

The next step is to receive a message which can be done using the NextMsg method. The passed duration is the amount of time to wait before until a message is received. This is received because SubscribeSync is the synchronous form of a push consumer subscription. There is also the Subscribe variant which takes a nats.MsgHandler function to receive and process messages asynchronously, but that will be described in a different example.

	msg, _ = sub.NextMsg(time.Second)
	fmt.Printf("received %q\n", msg.Subject)

Let’s ack the message and check out the pending count which will have a few buffered as shown above.

	queuedMsgs, _, _ = sub.Pending()
	fmt.Printf("%d messages queued\n", queuedMsgs)

If we unsubscribe, what happens to these pending messages? From the client’s perspective they are effectively dropped. This behavior would be true if the client crashed for some reason. From the server’s perspective it is going to wait until AckWait before attempting to re-deliver them. However, it will only re-deliver if there is an active subscription.


If we check out the consumer info, we can pull out a few interesting bits of information. The first one is that the consumer tracks the sequence of the last message in the stream that a delivery was attempted for. The second is that it maintains its own sequence to track delivery attempts. These should not be treated as correlated since the consumer sequence for a given message will increment on each delivery attempt. The “num ack pending” indicates how many messages have been delivered and awaiting an acknowledgement. Since we ack’ed one already, there are five remaining. The final one to note here are the number of redeliveries. Since these messages have been only delivered once (so far) for this consumer this value is zero.

	info, _ := sub.ConsumerInfo()
	fmt.Printf("max stream sequence delivered: %d\n", info.Delivered.Stream)
	fmt.Printf("max consumer sequence delivered: %d\n", info.Delivered.Consumer)
	fmt.Printf("num ack pending: %d\n", info.NumAckPending)
	fmt.Printf("num redelivered: %d\n", info.NumRedelivered)

If we create a new subscription and attempt to get a message before the AckWait, we will get a timeout since the messages are still pending.

	sub, _ = js.SubscribeSync("", nats.Bind(streamName, consumerName))
	_, err = sub.NextMsg(100 * time.Millisecond)
	fmt.Printf("received timeout? %v\n", err == nats.ErrTimeout)

Let’s try again and wait a bit longer beyond the AckWait. We can also see that the delivery attempt on the message is now 2.

	msg, _ = sub.NextMsg(time.Second)
	md, _ := msg.Metadata()
	fmt.Printf("received %q (delivery #%d)\n", msg.Subject, md.NumDelivered)

We can see how the numbers changed by viewing the consumer info again.

	info, _ = sub.ConsumerInfo()
	fmt.Printf("max stream sequence delivered: %d\n", info.Delivered.Stream)
	fmt.Printf("max consumer sequence delivered: %d\n", info.Delivered.Consumer)
	fmt.Printf("num ack pending: %d\n", info.NumAckPending)
	fmt.Printf("num redelivered: %d\n", info.NumRedelivered)


Network dbfddaae_default  Creating
Network dbfddaae_default  Created
Container dbfddaae-nats-1  Creating
Container dbfddaae-nats-1  Created
Container dbfddaae-nats-1  Starting
Container dbfddaae-nats-1  Started
# Ephemeral
ephemeral name is "5OHvxDcR"
3 messages queued
6 messages queued
received "events.1"
received "events.2"
4 messages queued

# Durable (Helper)
6 messages queued
nats: consumer not found

# Durable (AddConsumer)
received "events.1"
5 messages queued
max stream sequence delivered: 6
max consumer sequence delivered: 6
num ack pending: 5
num redelivered: 0
received timeout? true
received "events.2" (delivery #2)
max stream sequence delivered: 6
max consumer sequence delivered: 11
num ack pending: 4
num redelivered: 4


Note, playback is half speed to make it a bit easier to follow.